I recently heard from Mr. Ed Conrad, a retired Pennsylvania news reporter and long time resident of Shenandoah Penn. an area only a couple of miles away from Mahanoy City, Pennsylvania coal mining operations.
Mr. Conrad’s discoveries were among those that first got me interested in the “ooparts” phenomenon. The items he has found embedded in Carboniferous materials like coal, anthracite and slate are according to modern geology, 290 million to a billion years old. The femur pictured here and now available on EBAY must have come from an individual just over 8 feet tall–and it is a part of the rock!
The objects Mr. Conrad has found near his home over the years have made him a controversial figure on the internet and has made him a marked man. He did receive some early scientific support but because of his finds, his assertions about them and now a scientific report supporting his claims he has been banned from TalkOrigins (an evolution website) and is being ignored by the science establishment.
As I understand Ed’s position, he accepts the current paradigm’s dating system which would mean that man is 300 million to a billion years old. Here at s8int.com, we believe that these types of rocks, including coal, all formed within the last several thousand years. A recent Blog post Here recalled an article from 1876 where miners and scientists watched anthracite coal form in a long pipe inside a coal mine in only four months.
For those of you who want to argue that maybe or definitely it is not human–that doesn’t matter; if it’s a primate bone its still 200 hundred million plus years too early for current evolutionary theory.
Lin Liangtai from Taiwan eventually contacted Mr. Conrad and performed a number of scientific analyses on twenty or more objects.
A Study on a Carboniferous Human Femur Fossil
Last updated: Feb. 8, 2010
By Lin Liangtai
Mr. Ed Conrad, the discoverer of the subject material, has claimed he has found thousands of “fossils” in the Mahanoy City and Shenandoah region of Pennsylvania, USA. Before this study, the author has studied over 20 different specimens of those “fossils” and found they are all animal fossils, including a petrified human calvarium, well preserved down to the microscopic level.
The subject material was still partially embedded in an immense piece of slate in the Carboniferous rock layer when it was first photographed. The author found it was a fossil because it contained Haversian canals, which are found only in animals’ compact bones.
It belonged to a mammal because it possessed plentiful remains of scarlet, round, anucleate and concave cells, which were red blood cells found only in mammals. It is a fossilized human femur bone because it displays the following features: (1) It is nearly straight, round and quite slender; (2) Its maximum length is estimated to be 52 centimeters while its mid-shaft is 3.3 centimeters in diameter; (3) Its mid-shaft diameter is less than 6.36% of its maximum length. Only human femur bones match all above features. The author has searched various fossil records and data banks, but found no other mammals, extinct or extant, possessed a bone that meets all the three features at the same time. So, it was a femur of a Carboniferous mammal with a human calvarium.
The author found on the internet a photograph showing an object claimed to be a Carboniferous human femur fossil embedded in slate near Mahanoy City, Pennsylvania. As the discoverer of the object did not present detailed evidences for his claim, the author contacted the discoverer and asked for a specimen of the object in order to examine it in details.
Photo:Right. Annotated femur photo. Click to enlarge.
The discoverer sent one half of the object to the author by post for study (Fig.1-2-2). Before this study, the discoverer has claimed to have discovered thousands of Carboniferous animal –some human–fossils in the same area in the past 28 years (note 1). The author has studied over 20 different specimens of those objects and found they are all animal fossils, including a petrified human calvarium ( Article 1) (note 2), all preserved down to the microscopic level (Fig. 0-1, Fig. 0-2).
Material and Methods
(A) Material found in situ
The object (Fig.1-1-1)was discovered in situ by Mr. Ed Conrad, who had lived in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, USA for over 30 years. He discovered the subject material over 20 years ago in the suburb of Mahanoy City ( Note 3, Fig. 5-1-3), a few kilometers from Shenandoah, where he lived. When he first discovered the “femur fossil”, it was still partially embedded in a rock, which he claimed had been dumped there by a coal mining company during surface-mining operations.
He took three pictures of the object before removing it from the surrounding rock. A veteran Pennsylvania policeman, who is a polygraph expert, conducted three polygraph examinations on its discoverer and issued three examination reports (Fig.8-4-1, Fig.8-4-2, Note 2).The reports prove the discoverer showed “no deception” when asked if he found the majority of the questioned objects in the Mahanoy City/Shenandoah region (note 4).
The discoverer couldn’t have been confused about the location where he discovered thousands of fossils, as he lived within two miles of the location and passed by the location for thousands of times.
Mr. Ed Conrad advised the author in writing that the object was 17.5 inches long while still embedded in rock.To demonstrate its length, he put a measuring tape and a 16-inch educational model of human femur beside the object before he took the three pictures of the object. According to the geological map published by the Pennsylvania state government, the area around Shenandoah and Mahanoy City is situated on the rock layer of the Carboniferous age.
The Pennsylvania state government’s geological unit also confirmed in writing to the author that fossils discovered in those areas are all 307 (+/- 5) million years old. Figures 1-1-1 to 1-1-4 show the object was partially embedded in the rock. This point was supported by visual examination of the object’s surfaces, as the object’s under-ground surface had turned into black coal while its above-ground surface did not turn into black coal (Figure 1-3-2).
Material received for study:
The specimen received by the author measures 22 centimeter long and 3.3 centimeter in diameter at the mid-shaft (Fig. 5-2-3, Fig. 2-3-5). The author had the specimen that he received from the discoverer cut at the mid-shaft for the specimen’s transverse section by Mr. Liang at the Department of Geology, National Taiwan University. The transverse section was further cut into two equal parts and ground into two thin sections (Fig. 2-4-1), which were then covered with glass slides for viewing under light microscopes. The two thin sections are never stained with chemicals to change their original colors. Later, the specimen was cut again transversely at mid-shaft and another sample was obtained for viewing with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM sample was ground and coated with a thin layer of wax as required for SEM viewing. For orientation purpose, the SEM sample was marked by the author with a felt pen and a diamond-tipped pen. The SEM sample and the two thin sections were variously viewed with a stereomicroscope, a digital microscope, a transmitted-light microscope, and SEM (Hitachi S3400).
Images were captured with a camera (Canon EOS 350D), SEM (Hitachi S3400), or a digital microscope itself. Finally, the specimen was sent to Alberta Research Council (in Canada) for three-dimensional scanning with their Computed-Tomography imaging system. All figures mentioned in this article are displayed and explained in an on-line album at: this location
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