It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of the wisdom of man, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of unbelief.
It was the best of times from the standpoint of men (or so they thought) because they were eating and drinking, singing, dancing, partying, getting married and doing anything and everything they wanted. Every evil desire was realized. They acknowledged no master and no God; the way many live today.
It was the worst of times because within a few days every living thing that had the breath of life in it would be dead-except for Noah and the seven righteous people with him-together with the animals they had brought with them on the ark. Much of the creation that God had called good and very good had been destroyed-and the bodies of man and of the animals and the dead vegetation in and out of the seas still litter this planet-if one knows where to look.
If you’re fortunate enough to own one of the newer computers with a multi-core processor, perhaps a dual or a quad core chip, congratulations; you are utilizing on a daily basis technology near the summit of man’s technical ability. Some of the newer microchips now use 45 nanometer scale technology that can pack over a billion transistors on a single chip.
It would be common for science to refer to the advancing capability of these wonders of man’s technical prowess as the “evolution” of the micro-chip—but of course, these chips have all been intelligently designed. No one could be convinced that either the microchips that drive computers nor the software that instructs them came about by accident or that they were self created over time-but this is what we are asked to believe about much more complex, intelligently designed artifacts like DNA –and like life itself.
Photo, right:Dude, I’m getting a Dale!
(Article Here) We are truly “fearfully and wonderfully made! Psalm 139
The objective evidence from astronomy, cosmology, biology and geology verify that the universe and everything in it was created by God. However, science, the media and the educational system continue to barrage us with Materialistic, Atheistic approaches to our origins — which thankfully the majority of the American people continue to reject. According to a recent survey, the majority of us still accept the literal truth of the Bible.
I was struck by a recent Nova program that began by stating unequivocally in stentorian tones that the Great Flood was nothing but a mere myth –perhaps inspired by a huge, regional flood of the Black Sea. Later that night they were no doubt seeking pledges but I had already changed channels. It’s no wonder that Atheists and Materialists refuse to accept the truth of a world-wide flood; at that time in the planet’s past every single non-believer on earth perished.
Photo: The Deluge by Gericault. Click to Zoom
Of all that lived prior to the flood; we have burned their bodies or their remains (flora and fauna) for thousands of years for fuel. We utilize them in our cars and our machines. Their Detritus in their current forms are used to build houses and walls and streets. The chemicals in their bones are used to fertilize our crops and gardens. Their remains may even be worn around our necks or on our fingers as jewelry.
This planet is a graveyard and the life that existed before the flood is buried or entombed all around us.
We should not be surprised at this. As the Bible tells us; “By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.” Gen 3:19
We stand on the shoulders of those who died before the flood, but also on their heads, backs, stomachs and feet-etc…..
From Dust to Dust
If there really was a worldwide flood, why don’t we find more fossils of human beings I’m sometimes asked? If you think about this present world covered by 70% water, you’d actually expect that marine creatures and seaweed would represent the largest biological mass that would be left as evidence from a worldwide flood. Then, from the land the second greatest mass you’d expect would be from the flora; the trees and plants that largely cover the earth. After that, the fauna, with the mass of all of God’s creatures including the insects dwarfing that of humans. Humans should represent a small percent of the total mass of biological remains.
Photo:Belle Toute Lighthouse on one of the Seven Sisters Chalk Cliffs near Sussex, England. Chalk is a sedimentary rock of organic origin.
Microbes and Man, 4th Edition, 2000, confirms that the mass of microscopic life has been calculated to be on the order of 5 to 25 times the mass of all other animal life.
The importance of all this is that much of the sedimentary rock on earth is bound together by the bodies of these creatures apparently borne across the planet by water and distributed in alluvial (water borne) deposits.
Now chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, and a form of limestone. Science simply says that its primarily made up of calcite, without acknowledging that the source of the calcite is organic.
“Let us again return to the crust of the earth, and inquire in another direction what part minute organization of a different kind has performed in rearing up its massive substance. Let the reader mentally follow the track we shall point out to him, and endeavor, if he can, to estimate the cubic contents of such a mass of solid matter, if he would gain an idea of the importance of microscopic life in the work of creation.
Commencing at Dover, or Beachy Head, follow the course of the North or the South Downs up to their point of junction in the east of Hampshire, where they are joined by another branch of similar downs commencing near Weymouth.
These three chalk ranges enclose an area which includes all the north of Hampshire, and the larger portion of the south of Wiltshire. Yet this is not all. By the Marlborough Downs, by the Ilsey Downs and the Whitehorse Hills, the chalk runs into Oxfordshire, and continues, with some interruptions, through Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and Cambridgeshire into Norfolk. Neither is this all.
The lofty cliffs between Cromer and Huntanton, the Wolds of Lincolnshire and those of Yorkshire, all are chalk. Southward, let the tourist say how much of the Isle of Wight is chalk. Chalk along the coast, chalk in hills, chalk in valleys—chalk forms the lnkpen Beacon, Wilts, a thousand feet above the sea, chalk forms the Needles crumbling into it; all is chalk, nothing but chalk—chalk and flints !
Yet stay—take up a pinch of the white mass, lay a particle of it no bigger than a pin’s head on the field of the microscope, and what a startling spectacle discloses itself! The dust is thick with organized forms. All is shells and corals! The Needles are shells and corals—the Downs are shells and corals! Underneath the thin green turf of the Wolds lie shells and corals. The great Humber rolls over shells and corals. The white walls of England are—shells and corals. Shakespeare’s cliff is shells and corals. The waters which sweep round Margate, Ramsgate, and Dover, white as milk, are full of the remains of shells and corals! A million of shells and corals lie in a cubic inch of chalk!
What inconceivable millions in a hill, and what in the whole range ! And these of the most beautiful forms, all once replete with life! How large a part of England’s southern and western coast is made up of individual beings more minute than a pin’s point! These minute beings—and the idea is still more strange—approach us in our homes. Do we whitewash our ceilings, it is with shells and corals! Shells and corals, it is said, come to us in our London milk ! Shells and corals form the beautiful glazing of a lady’s card, and oftentimes the ornamental covering of her work-boxes or show-books !
The doctor sends us shells and corals in his physic, and the confectioner, as we are told, in his comfits! The microscope, skillfully applied, makes all this plain, and reveals to us in a language appreciable to the eye, though barely capable of being fully comprehended by the mind, how vast a share in the operations of nature the Creator has assigned to beings so infinitely minute”….W. Buckland, The Living Age , Volume 28 The microscope and its Wonders.
Science tries to escape the implication of all this by teaching us that the earth is billions of years old and that these formations were built up minutely through the ages. But how does science explain cliffs thousands of feet high, extended areas of the earth and mountains 25,000 high cemented together and composed of marine shells and coral?
Fossil Graveyards and Caves Full of Bones
By and large, fossils are not something that are being formed today. Certainly not in the profusion in which they have been found in the strata of the earth. To make a fossil, an animal that dies needs not to be eaten by predators or subject to decaying effects of the sun or the wind. They needed to be buried very quickly.
In the Karoo Bone yards or Karoo Supergroup in South Africa, there are an estimated 800 billion mostly vertebrate fossils—largely swamp dwelling reptiles. Composed mainly of sandstones and shales deposited in shallow water, the Karoo can be 20,000 feet thick. The fossil-rich beds stretch out for hundreds of miles.
What kind of catastrophe could cause this kind of devastation and leave behind this many fossils in sandstone and shale, two types or sedimentary rock or organic origin?
Here’s what evolutionists say; “The high degree of articulation of the skeletal remains and the preservation of delicate bones in situ suggest that the animals were either rapidly buried or died in a place protected from weathering and agents of dispersal. Two hypotheses are possible to explain this multitaxon aggregation: trapping in a floodplain gully followed by immediate burial or shelter-sharing. The latter hypothesis is favored after the analysis of the fossil evidence recorded in the South African Karoo Basin…. Fernando Abdalajuan Carlos Cisneros And Roger M.H. Smith2
The authors here considered and discarded a local flood but how could this many fossils be left by a local flood? Some bird fossils have also been found there; why should birds be the victims of local flooding? Evolutionists look for alternative explanations because they have no choice. The global flood explanation is untenable.
Of course, no one in Noah’s time believed in a global flood either.
“….Massive fossil graveyards of dinosaurs still exist in other locations the world over. The Morrison beds in North America, the dinosaur beds in Montana, in the Rocky Mountains, in Alberta, the Dakotas, China, Colorado, Utah, Africa, etc., etc., contain literally millions of dinosaur fossils piled together in tremendous heaps.
Ten thousand Hadrosaurs were found on Egg Mountain, Montana alone, jumbled together in what appears to have been a mass death. The Flood produced the Sicilian hippopotamus beds, the fossils of which are so extensive that they are mined as a source of charcoal; the great mammal beds of the Rockies; the dinosaur beds of the Black Hills and the Rockies, as well as in the Gobi Desert; the fish beds of the Scottish Devonian stratum, the Baltic amber beds, Agate Spring Quarry in Nebraska, and hundreds more”….Evolution Cruncher
A bone bed has been discovered south of Tampa, Florida. Paleontologists say it is one of the richest fossil deposits ever found in the United States. It has yielded the bones of more than 70 species of animals, birds, and aquatic creatures.
About 80% of the bones belong to plains animals, such as camels, horses, mammoths, etc. Bears, wolves, large cats, and a bird with an estimated 30-foot wingspan are also represented. Mixed in with all the land animals are sharks’ teeth, turtle shells, and the bones of fresh and salt water fish. The bones are all smashed and jumbled together, as if by some catastrophe. The big question is how bones from such different ecological niches—plains, forests, and ocean—came together in the same place. … Armstrong, Carol; “Florida Fossils Puzzle the Experts,”
Many fossil graveyards are high up in mountainous areas. In Sicily, for example, four thousand feet above sea level on Mount Etna, there are two caves crammed with the bones of thousands of hippopotamus in each grave. On the island of Malta there are lions, tigers, mammoths, birds, beavers, hippopotamus and foxes all mixed together.
“Back in middle 1940s Dr. Frank C. Hibben, Prof. of Archeology at the University of New Mexico mounted an expedition to Alaska to look for human remains. The remains he found were not human, but what he found was anything but evidence of gradualism or uniformitarianism.
Instead he found miles of muck filled with the remains of mammoth, mastodon, several kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions. Just north of Fairbanks, Hibbens and his associates watched as bulldozers pushed the half-melted muck into sluice boxes for the extraction of gold.
Animal tusks and bones rolled up in front of the blades “like shavings before a giant plane”. The carcasses were found in all attitudes of death, most of them “pulled apart by some unexplainable prehistoric catastrophic disturbance” (Hibben, 1946).
The evidence of the violence of nature combined with the stench of rotting carcasses was staggering. The ice fields containing these remains stretched for hundred of miles in every direction (Hibben, 1946). Trees and animals, layers of peat and mosses, twisted and mangled together like some giant mixer had jumbled them some 10,000 years ago, and then froze them into a solid mass.”
“The picture in Siberia and northern Europe is no different. Just north of Siberia whole islands are formed of the bones of Pleistocene animals swept northward from the continent into the frigid waters of the Arctic Ocean.
It has been estimated that some ten million animals lay buried along the rivers of northern Siberia. Thousands of tusks formed a massive ivory trade for the master carvers of China, all from the remains of the frozen mammoths and mastodons of Siberia.
The famous Beresovka mammoth first drew attention to the preserving properties of being quick-frozen when buttercups were found in its mouth and undigested food in its stomach. This was no gradual event–it had to be sudden!”.. Atlantisquest.com
Bones in Caves
A phenomenon that has been seen all over the world particularly in caves located at higher elevations is best explained only by a global flood. Profusions of plants, bones of land, sea and freshwater creatures, carnivores, and prey animals all mixed together violently. A local flood or calamity does not explain the violence evident by the broken bones. In life, that particular collection of creatures would never have shared a location together. The inclusion of bird fossils proves that the calamity was not simply a local one since birds would have been able to escape. Here is an article describing one of these mystery caves.
Heaps of Fossils in a Cave
Scientists Interested in Queer Find Near Philadelphia
Remains of Both Animal and Plant Life Mixed in Strange Confusion- Theories as to Their Origins
New York Times, November 25, 1895
Fossil Fuels and Facile Fools*
Here is the official, science approved explanation for fossil fuels like oil and gas. Note how much it seems like a creationist explanation; except for the time scale:
“Fossil fuels or gas fuels are fuels formed by natural resources such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. These fuels contain a high percentage of carbon and hydrocarbons.
Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates. It is generally accepted that they formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth’s crust over hundreds of millions of years. …Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being formed. “ Wikipedia
Creationists know when the vast amount of animal and plant remains became available for this process-after the global flood. It was a catastrophic process that did not take hundreds of millions of years. Oil has been drilled for all over the world for hundreds of years. Can you imagine how many dead creatures and dead plant remains would be needed to make just one barrel of oil?
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge by itself is estimated to contain up to 16 billion barrels of oil. There is just one time in the history of this planet when trillions of pounds of dead animals and plants were available to produce oil captured in sedimentary rock the world over.
“Most scientists agree that hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) are of organic origin. A few, however, maintain that some natural gas could have formed deep within the earth, where heat melting the rocks may have generated it inorganically. Nevertheless, the weight of evidence favors an organic origin, most petroleum coming from plants and perhaps also animals, which were buried and fossilized in sedimentary source rocks. The petroleum was then chemically altered into crude oil and gas.
The chemistry of oil provides crucial clues as to its origin. Petroleum is a complex mixture of organic compounds. One such chemical in crude oils is called porphyrin: Petroleum porphyrins … have been identified in a sufficient number of sediments and crude oils to establish a wide distribution of the geochemical fossils.
They are also found in plants and animal blood.”… Answers in Genesis
The biological origin of oil and the proof that millions of years are unnecessary for its formation are made clear by the successful attempts to make fossil fuels from organic ingredients. For instance, It is in fact possible to make oil from algae, although the cost of production can sometimes be quite high, when compared with the cost of conventional oil production. The advantage of oil from algae, of course, is that algae is a renewable resource, making biofuels from algae very close to being carbon neutral, and as the algae grows, it actually contributes in a positive way to the environment, filtering out toxins and generating oxygen….Wisegeek
Photo: Ed Conrad’s find. A human (pre-flood?) skull encased in rock asociated with coal formation
(American Chemical Society) Coal formation associated with the mass extinction of over 70% of all Plants and Animals.
“The volcanic eruptions thought responsible for Earth’s largest mass extinction — which killed more than 70 percent of plants and animals 250 million years ago — is still taking lives today. That’s the conclusion of a new study showing, for the first time, that the high silica content of coal in one region of China may be interacting with volatile substances in the coal to cause unusually high rates of lung cancer. The study appears in ACS’ Environmental Science & Technology.
A seam of coal formed 250 million years ago during the worst extinction event on record appears to be responsible for the anomalously high lung cancer death rates among women in the rural Chinese county of Xuan Wei in Yunnan Province.
It’s long been known that the lung cancer mortality rates in the region were the worst in the world among female nonsmokers and some anomaly in the coal had been suspected. Lung cancer mortality in the region is up to 20 times the Chinese average. But it’s only in recent years that scientists have focused in on silica in the form of very fine quartz as the mineral that makes burning the stuff so deadly.”
Coal is itself a sedimentary rock. Coal is similar to oil in that it originally came from living organisms. In the case of coal, though, it is thought that those living organisms were plants. However, as Ed Conrad’s finds in Pennsylvanian coal (including a human skull) show that, humans and animals also played their parts in the formation of coal. It has been estimated that there are over 847 billion tons of proven coal reserves worldwide. This means that there is enough coal to last us over 130 years at current rates of production…World Coal Production
Science claims that the material for the formation of this fossil fuel came from swamps—that is the facile explanation that lets them sleep at night, but the amount and distribution of coal resources in the world testifies to the truth that the animal and plant matter which formed coal were widespread and massive all over the planet.
Humans and animals are carbon based and the fossil fuels have high percentages of carbon. Some speculate that diamonds, the hardest form of carbon, may have organic origins as well.
Phosphates and False Dates
Photo: Nauru is a phosphate rock island, with deposits close to the surface, which allow for simple strip mining operations. This island was a major exporter of phosphate starting in 1907 and it has been left decimated by mining operations. Phosphates source is organic; bones and teeth of dead creatures. Click to zoom
Next to calcium, phosphorus is the most abundant mineral in the body. These two important nutrients work closely together to build strong bones and teeth. About 85% of phosphorus in the body can be found in bones and teeth, but it is also present in cells and tissues throughout the body.
Phosphorus is an important agricultural fertilizer, an essential element in metabolism and the transfer of biological energy, a component of matches, an ingredient in pyrotechnic applications, and besides of considerable scientific interest.
The origin of phosphorus around the world is primarily organic. It comes primarily from the bones and teeth and cells of dead creatures. The carnage after the great flood would have provided the greatest source of phosphorus that could be imagined-but science dates their formation to hundreds of millions of years along with that of associated sedimentary rocks.
Phosphate rock is produced in some 40 countries, but 12 countries account for 92 percent of the world’s production Approximately 144 to 150 million tons of phosphate rock were produced annually between 1995 and 1997. Igneous deposits in Russia, Brazil, and the Republic of South Africa accounted for about 17 million tons of production in 1997. The remaining production (about 133 million tons or 89 percent) was from sedimentary deposits…Better Crops: World Production of Phosphates
The Official Explanation for Florida Phosphates
“Florida’s phosphate deposits are made mostly of ocean animals. They began to form millions of years ago. At that time most of Florida was under water. About 5-10 million years ago, biological and chemical changes changed phosphate from the ocean to the phosphate like that we mine today. This phosphate deposit is huge. It stretches across the Florida. It also stretches up to the eastern Atlantic coast all the way to the Chesapeake Bay.
People don’t really know how all this phosphate formed, but they have a theory. Many scientists think that this is how it happened. During the geological time called Miocene, ocean water started getting into higher grounds. …There was a lot of life in the ocean, so the ocean was rich in nutrients and phosphate. This water was now at the seal level. Then water started precipitating, and the sediment full of phosphate was left. Florida’s limestone was now full of teeth, bones, and waste of ocean animals. In Miocene land started to come out.
..Many years passed. During the Pleistocene, the ocean levels dropped. Florida’s land was out of the ocean now. When Florida’s land was out of the water, millions of fossilized bones were found in the pits in which we mine phosphate today. The bones of the pre-historic animals from the Pleistocene can be found in the top phosphate layer. Below that we can find the fossils of ocean animals from the Miocene period. Some animal bones we can find are dugong, mastodons, saber tooth tiger, whales, camels, and three toed horses. No dinosaurs, though! Florida land got out of the ocean about 25 million years ago – dinosaurs were extinct 65 million years ago”. …ThinkQuest
Photo: Geologist’s F.S. Holmes book, right “The Phosphate Rock of South Carolina and the Great Carolina Marl Bed”, 1870″ was one of the sources for Watson’s book. Holmes said he found bones of dinosaurs as well as human implements and human bones-including a “giant” human thigh bone. Available Online Here
Man, dinosaurs and mammals together: Phophate rocks/bone phosphates of South Carolina : an analysis of their occurrence, origin, importance and instruction for the creation/evolution controversy by John Allen Watson 2001
Here is an early article describing the Florida phosphate beds and will serve to end this section ;
A Wilderness of Bones; Where Elephants, Tigers, and Mastodons Lie Buried; Their Bony Frames Are Now Called Florida Phosphates ..New York Times, March 26 1892
.”..Nearly half of Florida is marked out as a phosphate bed. The phosphate lands begin in the northern tier of counties. Tallahassee, the capital is in the center of a great deposit. In a general way the deposits begin at the mouth of the Apalachicola River and circle around northward and eastward, underlying Tallahassee, Monticello and Live Oak, then running southward, all on the west side of the State, through Ocaia and Barstow, all the way down to Punta Rassa.
… the bone phosphate of lime is nothing more nor less than the decomposed bones, or sometimes the guano of long dead animals and birds, solidified into soft rock…
..Where did so many bones come from? It looks as though at some prehistoric time all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air and all the leviathans of the deep had gathered for some unknown purpose in the state of Florida, and had been overtaken by some great calamity and left their bones there. Some of the bones are still in large pieces, others wholly intact and so well preserved that their species can be distinguished without difficulty. ..The bones and teeth of elephants…bones of mammoths which must have been carried to Florida in a glacier…the manatee, seacow…immense shark teeth some weighing more than a pound, ..the porpoise, the glyptodont, teeth of horses, tigers and crocodiles..
..Some of the deposits are 25, 30 feet thick and in some others, the bottom has not been found—not all pure bone, but bone and sand. There are similar deposits in many parts of the world.”….A Wilderness of Bones..
It Was People Like You Who Made the Ocean Salty, My Friend
The salts in sea and ocean water are simply dissolved solids and minerals of “everything” in weak solution. Ocean water is a complex combination of dissolved salts and dead biological matter. Science doesn’t completely understand the processes that led to salty oceans and seas but quite naturally believe that it took millions of years. If you are a Christian, you probably don’t believe that the earth has been around for millions of years but science needs numbers like that to try to give time for their theories to work.
Of course, if the world was really as old as science says, the oceans would now be thousands or millions of times saltier than it is today. Sea and ocean water is approximately 220 times saltier than fresh water. Scientists want to know; what is the origin of the sea and of its “salts”? And how does one explain ocean water’s remarkably uniform chemical composition?
“If all the salt in the sea could be extracted and spread evenly over the entire earth it is estimated that it would form a layer more than 500 feet thick-comparable in height to a 40 story office building.”… Why is the Ocean Salty?” By Herbert Swenson
I believe that the answer to the question that non-believers pose about salt water fish during the flood is—there were no salt-water fish before the flood—some fresh water species were able to adapt to salt water.
From whence did this incredible amount of material come? It probably comes from many sources, among them the detritus of people like you, of the dead animals and decaying plant and vegetation on the earth after the great flood.
The Coral Clock
Microscopic coral and shells provide the glue in the form of silicate that acts as the glue or bonding agent for sedimentary rocks the world over. Since coral are marine creatures there worldwide distribution over the entire planet is best explained by a global flood extending to high altitudes.
Dr. T. Wayland Vaughn of the U.S. Geological survey made some interesting discoveries about coral that live in vast colonies. He tested them using various experiments and determined that they were meat eaters exclusively. The living coral is a branched colony of individuals connected together with their soft bodies encased in shells. It’s the limey silicate shells that bond together when the animals die and build up together to create reefs.
At the rate of upward growth he observed in the reefs of the West Indies it would take from 6,531 to 7,620 years for the formation of a reef 160 feet thick in one of the species that he examined. Another he found could build that same reef in 1,800 years and still another in around 1,000 years. Coral supposedly evolved in the Ordovician, between 488 and 443 million years ago.
Taking Mr. Vaughn’s 1923 data and extrapolating it we find that the coral are young earth corals (YEC’s). If the slowest coral reef building species he studied would take 7, 620 years to build a 150 foot thick reef then it could build a reef approximately 20,000 feet high in 1 million years, 60,000 feet high in 3 million years or 200,000 feet high in only 10 million years. The coral say that the earth is less than 10,000 years old.
Photo: After the Deluge by Francis Danby 1837. Click to enlarge
The evidence of the death and destruction caused by the Global Flood is all around us. Some of those processes continue to this day allowing science to hypothesize that what may be going on a small scale accounts for the planet sized anomalies that we have here discussed.
There have been local floods in the world. Coral continues to grow to this day. Perhaps in certain places, dead vegetation and animal bodies are being transformed into coal or oil. In another rare occurrence somewhere on the globe, perhaps an animal dies and is rapidly buried and on its way to being fossilized. The point is, there is no other explantion other than a worldwide flood to satisfactorily explain the source of so many bones that entire islands can be made of phosphate of bone; entire coastlines of organic based chalk, sandstone or limestone; mountains made of microscopic marine creatures; the immense fossil graveyards throughout the world; the huge oil fields and coal deposits and even the saltiness of the ocean. Most of the dry land of the earth is sedimenatary rock which by definition is deposited by water.
Because every living thing with the breath of life in it persished except for Noah and those with him on the ark, this planet is a graveyard holding the bones of that pre-flood world. Their gravestones are of sandstone, quartz, limestone and chalk.
“No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. As it was in the days of Noah, so it will be at the coming of the Son of Man. For in the days before the flood, people were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day Noah entered the ark; and they knew nothing about what would happen until the flood came and took them all away. That is how it will be at the coming of the Son of Man”…Matt 24
*The fool has said in his heart there is no God. Psalm 14:1
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